Your London Physiotherapy Glossary


Activities designed to strengthen and build the muscles in the abdominal area.

Activities designed to strengthen and build the muscles in the abdominal area.

A therapeutic massage focusing on the abdomen and lower back, often extending to the neck, aimed at aligning internal organs and improving blood flow and lymphatic drainage.

A condition affecting the Achilles tendon due to repetitive minor injuries, characterized by pain, stiffness, weakness, and swelling.

An injury to the shoulder joint connecting the collarbone and shoulder blade, typically without dislocation.

A knee injury affecting the ligament connecting the thigh and shin bones, important for stability and movement control.

An injury to the ligaments around the ankle caused by awkward twisting or turning.

Pain located at the front and center of the knee, arising from various conditions like Runner’s knee or Chondromalacia patella.

A traditional technique involving the insertion of needles into specific body points to encourage healing and pain relief.

The correct positioning and arrangement of body parts in relation to each other.

The extent of movement achieved by an individual’s own muscle effort, without assistance.

Describing a condition or injury that appears suddenly and lasts for a short duration.

A condition marked by joint inflammation, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited movement.

Internal scar tissue bands forming around muscles, usually due to stress, strain, or injury.

A robust tissue connecting calf muscles to the heel, facilitating foot movement and bearing significant force during activities like walking and running.

Fundamental self-care tasks such as bathing, dressing, and eating, often used as a functional ability measure in physiotherapy.

A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, affecting daily functioning.

A neurological disorder causing difficulty in writing or spelling, often due to brain damage affecting language and motor skills.

Physiotherapy methods aimed at removing mucus from the respiratory tract in conditions like COPD, aiding in lung function

A neurological disorder impairing the ability to read, often addressed in physiotherapy through cognitive and visual processing exercises.

A communication disorder affecting speaking, understanding, reading, and writing, often treated with speech and language therapy.

A disorder impacting the ability to perform purposeful movements, despite having the necessary motor function and comprehension.

Discomfort in the foot’s arch area, potentially caused by overuse, injury, or structural issues, treated with strengthening exercises and supportive footwear.

Chronic joint inflammation leading to pain and restricted movement, with physiotherapy focusing on pain reduction and mobility improvement.

The evaluation of a patient’s physical capabilities and limitations in physiotherapy to develop a personalized treatment plan.

The inability to identify objects by touch, even with an intact sense of touch.

A chronic respiratory condition causing airway inflammation and narrowing, treated with breathing exercises and airway clearance techniques.

A condition characterized by uncoordinated movements and balance issues, treated with exercises to improve balance and coordination.

A movement disorder involving slow, involuntary movements, often treated with strength and flexibility exercises.

Muscle tissue loss due to disuse, injury, or disease, addressed with exercises promoting muscle growth.

The body’s front part between the chest and pelvis. Abduct: To move a body part away from the midline.

A term formerly used to describe chronic pain around the Achilles tendon, now more accurately referred to as Achilles tendinopathy.

An emergency device aiding in lung ventilation.

A self-inflating bag used for manual respiration support.

A minimally invasive surgical technique allowing direct examination of the ankle joint using a small camera.

A crucial ligament within the knee joint, providing stability and controlling the shin’s movement relative to the thigh.

A ligament on the ankle’s outer side, often injured in inversion sprains.

Immune system molecules that interact with specific antigens to fight foreign substances in the body.

Substances like toxins or foreign particles that can trigger an immune response.

Compounds believed to protect cells from damage by free radicals, found in various foods including fruits, vegetables, and meats.

Diagnostic imaging of a joint using a contrast medium.

A minimally invasive surgical technique allowing direct examination of internal body areas using a small camera.

The process of withdrawing fluids from the body using a syringe and needle.


A therapeutic approach aimed at relieving bodily pressure and restoring the natural alignment of joints and muscles.

A fitness tool comprising an inflated rubber hemisphere affixed to a rigid platform, utilized for various exercises to enhance balance, strength, and coordination.

The ability to maintain equilibrium by keeping the body’s center of mass over its base of support. Crucial for stability during both stationary and dynamic activities.

The scientific study of the human body’s movement and structure, focusing on the interplay of muscles, bones, and the nervous system in performing everyday activities.

The application of supportive devices like braces or splints to stabilize and protect injured joints or muscles.

The practice of using proper posture and movement patterns to perform physical tasks efficiently, minimizing bodily strain.

An extensive study of bodily functions, exploring the mechanics of muscles, bones, and the nervous system and how they synergize in activities like walking or sitting.

The skill of maintaining the center of gravity within the support base, crucial in physiotherapy for enhancing mobility, reducing fall risks, and improving life quality. Treatments may include strength and coordination exercises, as well as environmental adjustments.

A physiotherapy technique utilizing electronic devices to monitor and relay information about physiological functions such as muscle tension and heart rate, aiding patients in learning to control these functions for better physical health.

The hard, dense tissue forming the body’s skeletal structure. In physiotherapy, bones are evaluated and treated concerning their
movement support role, including injury prevention and rehabilitation.

The organ in vertebrates’ heads responsible for coordinating bodily functions and processing sensory information.

A small, fluid-filled sac situated between a bone and a tendon or muscle, serving to minimize friction and cushion movement.

An inflammatory condition affecting the bursae near joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited motion. Physiotherapy for bursitis might include ice or heat therapy, manual techniques, exercise, and education on joint mechanics.

Pertaining to the mechanical aspects of biological tissues and body structures.

A fluid-filled sac providing a cushion in areas where friction might occur between tissues.

The inflammation of a bursa, often resulting from repetitive use or overuse.


A term used to describe conditions or symptoms that persist or recur over a long period, often indicating long-term health issues.

The capacity of the torso muscles to support and control the spine and pelvis, forming a stable foundation for body movement.

The application of cold treatments, such as ice packs or ice baths, to alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.

The efficiency of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels in delivering oxygen and nutrients to the body during physical activity.

A resilient, flexible tissue found at bone ends, providing joint cushioning and enabling smooth movement.

Persistent pain lasting for an extended duration, usually over three months, often challenging to manage and treat.

The permanent shortening or tightening of muscles or tissues, resulting in restricted joint movement.

A crackling or grinding sensation or noise in a joint, often linked to conditions like osteoarthritis.

A type of connective tissue softer than bone, found in various body areas, providing cushioning and support at joints, such as around the knee.

Describes long-term, persistent conditions or pains that are continuous, like chronic back pain or arthritis.

A treatment approach involving non-manual support from a physiotherapist, such as lifestyle advice or education to address
misunderstandings or negative beliefs about a condition.

Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels, with cardiovascular exercises in physiotherapy aiming to improve heart health and
overall fitness.

Specialized tissue providing joint cushioning, with physiotherapy focusing on maintaining or improving its health in conditions like osteoarthritis.

The mental processes of acquiring, processing, and utilizing information, important in physiotherapy for understanding and following rehabilitation instructions.

The application of pressure to body areas to improve circulation, reduce swelling, and relieve pain, often used in various
treatment plans.

A general term for diseases characterized by abnormal cell growth forming tumors in body tissues.

A group of foods providing the body with its primary energy source, absorbed from sugars and starches and stored as glycogen.
Cardiac: Relating to the heart and its functions.

Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels system.

A common overuse condition where swelling in the wrist’s carpal tunnel leads to nerve compression, causing pain and discomfort.

The neck region of the spine.

Skin irritation caused by friction from clothing or skin-to-skin contact.

A qualified member of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, indicated by the initials MCSP.

A condition involving the softening of the cartilage underneath the kneecap, leading to knee pain.

Referring to a long-lasting condition.

A protein-based tissue forming the human body’s connective tissue, a major component of skin, tendons, bones, ligaments, and cartilage.

Ligaments located at the sides of a joint.

A specific type of wrist fracture characterized by a displacement that creates a noticeable deformity.

A serious condition where increased pressure within a muscle compartment reduces blood flow, requiring urgent medical attention.

A muscle action where fibers shorten during contraction.

A condition present from birth.

Abnormal muscle tissue shortening.

A medical term for a bruise.

The ability to engage specific stabilizing muscles, enhancing support to the pelvis, spine, and trunk, and potentially relieving and
preventing pain.

The capacity to maintain stability in one part of the body while performing static or dynamic movements with another, crucial in activities requiring physical control and balance.

A naturally occurring steroid that reduces inflammation, with synthetic versions used in treating inflammatory conditions.

The use of cold treatment to manage injury, reducing metabolic activity in tissues and alleviating pain.

A diagnostic imaging technique providing detailed cross-sectional images of the body’s internal structures.

A closed sac filled with fluid.


A type of bruise or contusion resulting from a direct impact, where a muscle is crushed against the bone beneath it.

A technique targeting deeper muscle and connective tissue layers, used to alleviate conditions like back pain and headaches. It involves firm, steady pressure and slow strokes to relax muscles and restore movement.

A condition characterized by a significant separation between the left and right sides of the rectus abdominis muscle, causing the belly to protrude.

A massage method focusing on the deeper muscle and connective tissue layers to alleviate chronic tension and promote relaxation.

A technique involving the insertion of fine needles into muscle trigger points to relieve tension and pain.

The gradual deterioration or wearing down of tissues or structures, often related to aging or specific conditions.

The bulging or rupture of an intervertebral disc, leading to nerve compression and resulting in pain and other symptoms.

A feeling of lightheadedness or unsteadiness, often described as a sensation of spinning or swaying.

The natural decline or deterioration of a muscle, joint, or body part, often associated with aging.

The gel-like cushions between the spine’s vertebrae, acting as shock absorbers and aiding in spine flexibility.

The removal of dead or damaged tissue from a wound to promote healing and prevent infection, using various techniques like sharp, enzymatic, or mechanical debridement.

A functional impairment or limitation in physical abilities, such as strength or balance, impacting daily activities. Physiotherapy
aims to improve these deficits.

The identification and classification of a patient’s condition based on symptoms, history, and physical examination to create a
tailored treatment plan.

A physical or mental impairment affecting an individual’s ability to perform daily activities. Physiotherapy interventions focus on improving mobility and function.

The process of concluding physiotherapy care when a patient has reached their goals and no longer requires treatment.

A sensation of mild to moderate pain or unease during physiotherapy, which can be physical or emotional in nature.

An injury where bones in a joint are displaced, causing instability and pain. Physiotherapy involves reducing pain and restoring joint stability.

Muscles that work together to stabilize and control movement, maintaining joint alignment and preventing instability

A motor speech disorder causing difficulty with speech due to muscle weakness or incoordination.

Difficulty swallowing due to impaired function of muscles and nerves involved in the swallowing process.

Difficulty or discomfort in breathing, characterized by shortness of breath or a feeling of suffocation.

The act of removing foreign and loose bodies from a joint or wound.

An emergency device that restores normal heart rhythm using an electric shock.

A form of arthritis affecting the spine, characterized by disc dehydration, shrinkage, and bony spur formation.

Arthritis of a joint, often following trauma or repetitive use, marked by the gradual degeneration of joint cartilage.

A condition resulting from a net loss of body fluid, where fluid intake does not match fluid loss.

A condition where the healing of a fracture takes longer than usual.

A medical specialist in skin conditions and treatments.

A group of conditions where insulin dysfunction from the pancreas leads to changes in blood sugar levels, with obesity being a major contributing factor.

The shaft or main portion of a long bone.

The process of expanding or stretching a tubular structure.

Circular fibrocartilage plates between the spine’s vertebrae.

A process in the body characterized by specific signs and symptoms, indicating a departure from normal function.

The displacement of a bone from its joint, often caused by trauma and accompanied by ligament, capsule, and soft tissue damage.

A substance that promotes increased urine production.

The abnormal or impaired functioning of a tissue or organ.


Customized exercises and physical activities recommended by a physiotherapist or osteopath to address specific health conditions, aid recovery, and enhance overall functionality.

The use of electrical stimulation in therapy to alleviate pain, induce muscle contraction, accelerate tissue healing, and produce other physiological benefits.

The science of designing and arranging workspaces, equipment, and tasks to maximize efficiency, comfort, and safety.

The application of specific exercises and physical activities to restore function, strength, and mobility after an injury, surgery, or illness.

A condition marked by excessive fluid accumulation in body tissues, causing swelling and inflammation. Physiotherapy treatments include manual lymphatic drainage, compression therapy, and exercises to improve circulation.

A synovial hinge joint formed by the humerus, radius, and ulna bones, enabling arm flexion and extension. Commonly treated in physiotherapy for conditions like tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow.

A treatment period for a specific condition or injury, encompassing assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome evaluation,
defined by patient-centered goals and objectives.

Redness of the skin caused by increased blood flow to an area, often due to injury, inflammation, or infection, and used as a diagnostic indicator in physiotherapy

The study of the causes and origins of diseases, including contributing factors, crucial for developing effective treatment plans in physiotherapy.

The assessment of a patient’s physical capabilities and limitations to create a personalized treatment plan, involving medical history review, physical examinations, and functional tests.

A comprehensive assessment of a patient’s physical and functional status, including medical history, symptoms, and various physical tests, to identify impairments and develop a treatment plan.

A therapeutic activity or movement prescribed to improve or maintain physical functions like strength, flexibility, and balance,
tailored to the patient’s needs and goals.

The leakage of fluid and cellular material from blood vessels into surrounding tissues, often a result of inflammation or injury, indicating tissue damage in physiotherapy.

A muscle contraction where muscle fibers are elongating while generating force.

A bruise characterized by purple or red discoloration on the skin, caused by trauma.

An ultrasound-based diagnostic tool used to visualize the heart’s structure and function.

The swelling of a joint due to fluid accumulation.

A diagnostic tool that traces the heart’s electrical activity, recording its rhythms and patterns.

A test evaluating nerve function in specific muscles.

The use of electricity in the treatment of various medical conditions.

A bony prominence, often serving as an attachment point for muscles, tendons, or ligaments.

Inflammation of the soft tissue and bone at an epicondyle, with lateral epicondylitis commonly known as tennis elbow.

The end part of a long bone, responsible for bone growth and made of cartilage that ossifies in adulthood.

A topical anesthetic applied to the skin, but not on open wounds.

The study of disease causes.

The outward turning of a body part.

An ankle sprain where the foot turns outward, causing damage to the inner side of the ankle.

A movement that straightens or extends a body part.

A muscle that facilitates extension movement.

Tendons on the forearm’s back, continuing from the muscles that extend the wrist joint.

A device using electromagnetic or ultrasonic waves to stimulate bone growth and healing, typically worn during sleep.

An anatomical movement where a body part rolls outward, away from the body’s midline.

Referring to a factor or cause of injury originating outside the body.


The inability to control bowel movements, leading to involuntary passage of feces.

Exercise equipment like barbells or dumbbells, used without any attached structure, allowing for a full range of motion during training.

A thin layer of connective tissue enveloping each muscle. Flare-up: A commonly used term to describe a sudden increase in pain or the recurrence of a previous condition, though not a clinical term.

A commonly used term to describe a sudden increase in pain or the recurrence of a previous condition, though not a clinical term.

Connective tissue surrounding muscles, bones, and organs, crucial for proper movement and force transmission. Targeted in physiotherapy through manual therapy to improve mobility and alleviate pain.

A synovial hinge joint formed by the humerus, radius, and ulna bones, enabling arm flexion and extension. Commonly treated in physiotherapy for conditions like tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow.

A movement that reduces the angle between two body parts at a joint, such as knee bends or shoulder shrugs, used in physiotherapy to enhance joint mobility and reduce pain.

A restriction in performing physical activities due to impairments or disabilities, addressed in physiotherapy through specific interventions to improve function and quality of life.

A surgical procedure involving the cutting of the fascia to relieve pressure.

The thigh bone, which is the largest bone in the human body.

Specialized cells forming scar tissue by laying down collagen, particularly following inflammation.

A tough type of cartilage composed of dense collagen, functioning as a shock absorber in joints, found in structures like the knee meniscus and the hip and shoulder labrum.

The smaller bone located alongside the shinbone in the lower leg.

The ability to execute precise, coordinated movements using smaller muscle groups, such as hand movements for picking up objects or unscrewing lids.

A condition where the inner border of the foot is lower to the ground than usual, affecting the foot’s arch.

The action of bending a joint.

A muscle responsible for bending a joint.

A diagnostic technique using X-rays and a fluorescent screen to visualize movement within body joints in real time.

A break or crack in a bone.

Unstable atoms within cells that are implicated in cellular damage and potentially in the development of cancer.


A condition characterized by strain at the leg and torso junction, commonly caused by activities involving twisting and kicking motions.

A specialized field of physiotherapy focusing on women’s health, particularly addressing conditions related to the female reproductive system.

The pattern of limb and trunk movement during walking or running. Gait analysis in physiotherapy assesses and treats movement disorders, aiming to improve mobility and performance.

A specific, measurable objective set by a patient and physiotherapist to guide treatment. Goals may include improving motion range, reducing pain, or enhancing functional ability

A condition causing pain and inflammation inside the elbow, often due to overuse of wrist and forearm muscles. Treatment in physiotherapy may include manual therapy, exercises, and modalities like ultrasound.

A tool used in physiotherapy to measure a joint’s range of motion, aiding in objective evaluation and tracking rehabilitation progress.

Refers to exercises or movements influenced by gravity, such as standing or lying exercises, used to enhance or challenge treatment effectiveness.

A chemical element used as a contrast agent in MRI scans to enhance image quality.

Pertaining to the shoulder joint.

Part of the shoulder blade forming the socket in the shoulder’s ball-andsocket joint.

A form of carbohydrate stored in the liver and muscles, serving as an energy reserve.

Medial epicondylitis characterized by pain in the elbow’s inner side, affecting not just golfers but also those engaged in workrelated activities.

Fibrous tissue forming from a blood clot during the inflammatory process, which eventually becomes scar tissue.

A common term for an injury to the adductor muscles of the thigh.

The ability to perform coordinated movements using large muscle groups for actions like running and jumping, distinct from fine motor skills involving smaller muscles for detailed actions.


An injury where the tendons at the back of the thigh, connecting the large thigh muscle to the bone, are overstretched or torn.

A physical or functional limitation affecting an individual’s ability to perform daily activities or engage in desired activities, often
due to a health condition or injury.

Pain or discomfort in the head or neck region, which can be caused by muscle tension, poor posture, neck or spine dysfunction,
or nerve irritation, treated with manual therapy, exercise, and relaxation techniques.

The overall physical, mental, and social well-being of an individual, including their ability to perform daily activities and participate in society.

Adverse effects arising from heat therapy, such as burns, skin irritation, or exacerbation of medical conditions like

Discomfort in the heel area, potentially caused by conditions like plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, or stress fractures, treated with physiotherapy interventions like manual therapy and exercises.

A visual field defect causing loss of half of the visual field in one or both eyes, typically addressed in physiotherapy with visual retraining exercises.

Maintaining adequate fluid levels in the body for optimal physiological function, important for tissue healing, inflammation
reduction, and muscle and joint function.

Excessive bending of a joint beyond its normal range, often leading to strain or injury, addressed in physiotherapy with joint stability and flexibility exercises.Excessive bending of a joint beyond its normal range, often leading to strain or injury, addressed in physiotherapy with joint stability and flexibility exercises.

An increase in cell numbers in a tissue or organ, leading to enlargement or growth, which can be beneficial for tissue repair but excessive growth may lead to pathological conditions.

An increase in muscle fiber size due to more contractile proteins, often resulting from exercise, associated with increased strength and physical performance.

Bleeding within a joint.

A localized collection of blood within tissues.

The medical term for bleeding.

Mature bone mass that forms from soft callus cartilage during bone healing.

Progressive damage to the heart and its supplying blood vessels, often related to poor diet and sedentary lifestyle.

A therapeutic warm pack used for pain relief and muscle relaxation.

The protrusion of an organ or tissue through a break in surrounding tissue.

The foot section directly under the shin bone, consisting of the heel bone (calcaneus) and talus.

A contusion or bruise around the hip joint, typically resulting from direct contact in sports.

A therapeutic warm pack used for alleviating pain and muscle spasm, similar to a heat pack.

The smooth, glassy cartilage covering bone ends at joints, facilitating friction-free movement.

Therapeutic exercises performed in a swimming pool.

Extending a joint beyond its normal range of motion.

Referring to sports drinks with lower concentrations of sugars and salts, allowing for rapid absorption and digestion.


Enhancing athletic capabilities like strength, speed, and stamina through various therapies or techniques.

A loss or abnormality in body structure or function impacting an individual’s ability to perform daily activities, often addressed in physiotherapy to improve physical function and health.

A body’s response to tissue injury or infection, characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain, treated in physiotherapy with methods like ice, compression, and manual therapy.

The degree of force or effort applied during therapy, including exercise or manual therapy, and the level of stimulation from modalities like electrical stimulation.

The application of specific physiotherapy techniques, exercises, or modalities to address impairments, limitations, or disabilities, aiming to improve physical function and quality of life.

Exercise or movement performed at a constant speed throughout the range of motion, often using specialized equipment, used to improve strength, endurance, and joint stability.

A type of muscle contraction where tension is generated without changing muscle length, used to improve muscle strength and joint stability.

Muscle contractions where the muscle shortens against constant resistance, maintaining tension throughout the range of motion, used to improve muscle strength and endurance.

The use of ice in treating injuries, reducing metabolic activity in tissues to prevent secondary damage and alleviate pain.

An overuse condition causing pain on the outer side of the knee, due to friction between the iliotibial band and the thigh

Restricting movement of a body part, often through strapping or a plaster cast.

A shoulder condition where raised arm movements cause restricted space between the humerus and acromion, leading to impingement of muscles, tendons, and bursae.

A surgical cut through skin and soft tissue.

The body’s response to injury, characterized by pain, swelling, heat, redness, and loss of function, initiating healing.

A hormone from the pancreas regulating carbohydrate breakdown, with deficiency leading to diabetes.

An anatomical movement where a body part is rolled inward toward the body’s midline.

A fibrous tissue band connecting two bones.

Relating to the marrow cavity inside a bone.

A surgical implant, typically titanium, inserted into a bone’s marrow cavity to stabilize a fracture.

A titanium screw inserted through a bone’s marrow cavity to fixate a fracture.

Turning a body part inward.

An ankle injury where the foot turns inward and the body weight shifts outward, damaging the ankle’s outer side.

Muscle contractions with consistent resistance throughout the movement range.

A muscle contraction with no change in muscle length and no joint movement.

Muscle contractions with constant muscle tension and shortening of muscle fibers.

A suffix indicating inflammation of a body part.


Also known as patellar tendonitis or patellar tendinopathy, this condition is an overuse injury affecting the tissue connecting the kneecap to the shin bone.

A term referring to the location where two or more bones meet, such as the knee joint.

The preservation of the structural and functional stability of a joint, including its surrounding soft tissues, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. In physiotherapy, maintaining joint integrity involves assessing and treating the joint to enhance mobility, alleviate pain, and prevent further injury or degeneration.

The capability of a joint to move freely and smoothly through its full range of motion. In physiotherapy, improving joint mobility often involves techniques like joint mobilization, stretching, and exercise to enhance function and reduce discomfort.

The articulations between bones that facilitate movement and provide stability. In physiotherapy, joints are a primary focus for
treating conditions related to pain, stiffness, swelling, and limited motion, using methods like manual therapy and exercise prescription.

The anatomical point where bones connect, forming the framework for movement and support in the body.

A membranous sac enclosing synovial joints, contributing to joint stability and lubrication.

A physiotherapy technique involving passive or active movement of a joint to restore its range of motion or relieve pain. Passive
mobilization is controlled by the therapist, while active mobilization is controlled by the patient.

Exercises for strengthening the pelvic floor muscles, named after Dr. Arnold Kegel, the obstetrician who developed them. They are beneficial for improving bladder and bowel control, as well as sexual function.

An injury to the meniscus, the C-shaped cartilage in the knee that acts as a shock absorber. Often resulting from over-flexing or twisting the knee, it can lead to pain, tenderness, and swelling around the knee’s outer surface.

Damage to any of the four ligaments in the knee, typically causing pain, swelling, tenderness, bruising, and limited knee movement.

The sense of body movement and position, including limb motion and tension. In physiotherapy, kinesthesia is important for improving proprioception, balance, coordination, and motor control, especially in patients with neurological or musculoskeletal issues.

A medical term describing an excessive forward curvature of the thoracic spine, leading to a hunchbacked appearance. It can arise from poor posture or pathological conditions.


Flexible, connective muscle tissues that connect bones together, providing stability and support to joints, such as those around the ankle.

A clinical term referring to the application of weight or force onto a specific muscle, joint, or body part.

A fibrocartilaginous structure encircling the shoulder joint socket, enhancing stability and cushioning. Labral tears are treated in physiotherapy with exercises and manual therapy to improve shoulder function.

Fibrous tissues connecting bones at joints, crucial for joint stability. Injuries like sprains are treated with muscle-strengthening
exercises, joint mobility enhancement, and pain-reducing modalities.

A sensation of dizziness or faintness, potentially caused by factors like low blood pressure or dehydration, treated in physiotherapy with balance and coordination exercises.

Difficulty in moving freely and without pain, often due to injury, illness, or chronic conditions, addressed in physiotherapy to improve motion range, strength, and functionality.

The inability of a joint or body part to move through its full range due to injury, pain, stiffness, or weakness, treated with exercises and manual therapy to restore normal joint function.

The inability to maintain a stable, upright position, caused by various factors including neurological and musculoskeletal issues, addressed with strength, flexibility, and balance training in physiotherapy.

The cartilaginous rim in ball-and-socket joints like the hip and shoulder, increasing joint congruency and stability.

A substance derived from wool, used as a skin cream for soothing rashes, dry skin, minor cuts, and other skin irritations.

An anatomical term referring to structures furthest from the body’s midline.

The ligament on the outer side of the knee, connecting the thigh bone to the fibula, aiding in knee joint stability

A general term describing damage to body tissue.

A strong fibrous tissue band connecting bones at joints, providing joint stability.

A common term for low back pain.

The five spinal bones in the lower back, situated above the sacrum.

Referring to the lumbar spine and sacrum, or the lower back area.

Fluid in the lymphatic system, primarily consisting of water, plasma proteins, and blood cells, involved in the body’s immune response.

A network of vessels, nodes, and ducts that collect lymph fluid from body tissues, playing a crucial role in the body’s defense mechanisms by filtering out bacteria and toxins.


Approaches used to prevent or reduce the symptoms and frequency of severe recurrent headaches known as migraines.

Relating to pain that affects the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones, often with varying causes.

A form of soft tissue treatment, typically gentle and relaxing, aimed at eliminating pain and restoring motion. This technique addresses issues like postural tension and joint misalignment.

A method that applies continuous pressure to elongate the connective tissue surrounding every cell in the body.

Treatments delivered by hand by a physiotherapist, such as softtissue massage and joint mobilization.

Tissue in the human body capable of contracting to produce movement. There are various types and groups of muscles.

The state where muscle fibers become tense or less flexible under stress, restricting movement and function, and potentially
causing pain.

The body’s ability to perform coordinated movements through muscles, nerves, and the brain. Physiotherapy for motor function involves exercises, manual therapy, and other interventions to improve movement control and coordination.

Individual cells in skeletal muscle tissue responsible for force generation and movement. Physiotherapy for muscle fibers focuses on enhancing their function, strength, endurance, and flexibility.

A condition of increased tension or stiffness in muscle fibers, leading to reduced motion range and discomfort, often addressed in physiotherapy with stretching, massage, and exercise.

The resting tension level in a muscle, influenced by muscle fiber activation by the nervous system, often assessed and treated in physiotherapy to improve movement, posture, and function.

A reduction in muscle strength and power, affecting the ability to perform physical tasks, treated with strength-building exercises, range of motion enhancement, and muscle activation modalities.

The bony prominences on either side of the ankle.

A skilled manual therapy technique involving a forceful passive thrust of a joint to its end range of motion.

Mobilization of soft tissues using techniques like stroking, kneading, and percussion.

An anatomical term for structures closest to the body’s midline.

The surgical removal of the knee joint’s meniscus.

The semi-circular shaped fibrocartilage in the knee joint that acts as a shock absorber and improves joint congruency.

The broader part near the end of a long bone.

The five bones in the foot located between the ankle and the toes, commonly injured in activities like soccer.

A general term for pain in the metatarsal region of the foot.

Microscopic tissue damage following physical exertion.

The ability to perform coordinated movements using muscle actions, with gross motor skills involving large muscles for major body movements and fine motor skills involving smaller muscles for precise actions.

A non-invasive imaging technique for visualizing body tissues, organs, and joints.

A diagnostic procedure using magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the body, aiding in diagnosing sports injuries and other conditions.

Specialized tissue responsible for movement and locomotion, with contractile properties.

A condition where calcium deposits form in muscle tissue, often following internal bleeding in the muscle, such as a severe bruise or “dead leg.”


A feeling of discomfort in the stomach often associated with the urge to vomit. In physiotherapy, it can be a symptom of conditions like vestibular disorders or post-concussion syndrome, with interventions including vestibular rehabilitation and lifestyle modifications.

The expected results from physiotherapy for the neck may include enhanced mobility, reduced pain and stiffness, better posture,
stronger neck muscles, and improved functionality in daily activities.

A bundle of neurons that transmit signals between the brain, spinal cord, and body. Nerves are crucial for sensory information and motor commands in the musculoskeletal system. Physiotherapy for nerve issues may involve manual therapy, exercise, and electrotherapy to address conditions like neuropathic pain or muscle weakness.

A loss of sensation in a part of the body, typically due to nerve damage or compression, treated in physiotherapy with exercises, manual therapy, and other techniques to improve nerve function and restore normal sensation.

A durable synthetic rubber polymer with thermal insulating properties, commonly used in joint or muscle supports.

The formation of new blood vessels in abnormal tissue.

Cord-like structures comprising nerve cells that transmit impulses between the central nervous system and the body. Sensory nerves relay signals to the central nervous system, motor nerves control muscle contractions, and mixed nerves have both sensory and motor functions.

Pain resulting from a nerve issue.

Inflammation of nerve tissue, causing pain, potential weakness, or loss of sensation.

A medical specialist focusing on neurology.

The study of the nervous system and its diseases.

Pertaining to the relationship between nerves and muscles.

A term for disorders involving peripheral nerve dysfunction.

A condition where a fracture fails to heal properly, potentially requiring surgical intervention.

Medications that relieve pain, reduce fever, and have anti-inflammatory effects, such as aspirin and ibuprofen.


A therapy focused on assisting with physical changes during pregnancy, preparing for easier delivery, and aiding recovery postpartum.

Groin pain resulting from tissue damage and inflammation at the pelvis where the pubic bones meet.

The application of the ideal amount of weight or force to a muscle, joint, or body part, tailored to the current stage of recovery.

Devices placed inside shoes to support the feet, realign limbs, correct posture, and reduce strain on different body areas.

Measurable aspects of a patient’s condition, such as range of motion and strength, used for baseline assessments, tracking progress, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

A condition where blood pressure drops suddenly upon standing, causing dizziness or fainting, addressed in physiotherapy with
cardiovascular function improvement exercises.

The measurable result of physiotherapy intervention on aspects like physical function, pain, range of motion, strength, and quality of life.

The repetitive or excessive use of a body part leading to tissue damage, inflammation, and pain, common in athletes and those with repetitive tasks.

The percentage of hemoglobin molecules in the blood bound with oxygen, used to monitor respiratory function in physiotherapy.

A medical doctor specializing in the treatment of musculoskeletal system conditions.

A medical specialty focusing on the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, and soft tissues.

A medical appliance used to improve function.

A shoe insert that supports the foot’s inner arch, available in custom-made or off-the-shelf varieties.

A professional who applies orthotic devices to improve functional abilities.

A common overuse injury affecting the upper shinbone below the knee, prevalent in adolescents engaged in sports.

A degenerative joint disease characterized by wear of joint surfaces, often resulting from overuse or secondary to trauma.

Cells in bone responsible for producing bone tissue.

A condition affecting bone attachment areas, common in children, marked by pain during bone degeneration and regeneration phases.

Cells in bone responsible for re-absorbing bone tissue.

A severe infection of the bone, often due to bacteria, requiring prompt antibiotic treatment.

A bone disease with decreased bone mineral density, leading to height loss, postural changes, and increased fracture risk.

Physical and emotional symptoms in athletes due to excessive training and insufficient rest, often leading to underperformance and a cycle of further overtraining.

An injury primarily caused by training volume that is too high or too frequent, especially with repetitive actions.


Exercises involving the contraction and relaxation of muscles supporting the pelvic and abdominal organs.

A condition where the muscles and ligaments supporting a woman’s pelvic organs weaken, causing them to drop out of their normal position.

The practice of using examination, diagnosis, and physical intervention to restore movement and function in individuals affected by injury, illness, or disability.

A condition common in runners causing stabbing pain and inflammation in the tissue connecting the heel bone to the front of the foot.

 Exercises performed after pregnancy to strengthen vital muscles and improve physical shape.

A specialized massage tailored to the needs of pregnant women to alleviate discomfort and physical symptoms.

Therapy aimed at maintaining fitness, comfort, and health during pregnancy, and managing pregnancy-related conditions.

Exercises designed to strengthen the pelvic floor and prepare for pregnancy-related physical and physiological changes.

Sciatic nerve pain caused by irritation or compression during pregnancy.

Treatment for organs that have fallen down or slipped out of place.

The study of the nature, causes, and effects of diseases and injuries, used in physiotherapy for diagnosis and treatment planning.

The ability to sense the position and movement of the body, often impaired after injury, and addressed in physiotherapy to restore balance mechanisms.

A subjective experience related to actual or potential tissue damage, used in physiotherapy as an indicator of dysfunction or injury.

A hands-on technique in physiotherapy for assessing the condition of tissues and identifying areas of pain or dysfunction.

The repetitive continuation of a movement or behavior beyond its intended purpose, often due to neurological impairments.

A comprehensive, individualized treatment plan in physiotherapy, outlining goals, interventions, and expected outcomes.

A thick band of tissue on the sole of the foot, often a focus in physiotherapy for conditions like plantar fasciitis.

A healthcare field specializing in foot, ankle, and lower extremity conditions, often involved in physiotherapy treatment plans.

Difficulty in executing smooth movements, often due to neurological, musculoskeletal, or developmental issues, addressed in

The period following surgery where physiotherapy aids in recovery, involving techniques to improve mobility and reduce pain.

The period following childbirth, with physiotherapy focusing on musculoskeletal recovery and pelvic floor rehabilitation.

Physiotherapy interventions before surgery to prepare the patient, including strength and flexibility exercises.

The force applied by a therapist or device to manipulate tissues, improve circulation, and promote healing.

The application of mechanical advantage in therapeutic exercises to optimize biomechanics and therapeutic outcomes.

The predicted outcome of a patient’s condition in physiotherapy, based on physical status and response to treatment.

The body’s ability to sense its position and movement, crucial for coordination and balance, often a focus in physiotherapy.

A technique to facilitate lung secretion drainage, used in respiratory conditions like cystic fibrosis and COPD.

An organ secreting insulin for carbohydrate regulation, also involved in fat and protein digestion.

A sensation of pins and needles or prickling.

 The kneecap.

A degenerative condition of the patella tendon, often linked to overuse and aging, leading to potential tendon rupture.

The strong fibrous tissue connecting the quadriceps muscle to the shin bone, below the kneecap.

The joint between the kneecap and thigh bone, facilitating knee movement.

Misalignment of the kneecap during movement, causing stress on the patella’s underside and leading to pain.

The study of diseases, or tissue damage due to dysfunction or disease.

A byproduct of petroleum refining, used for treating skin issues and preventing friction in sports.

Pertaining to the normal functioning of a living body and its tissues.

The fibrous tissue on the foot’s sole, providing arch support.

The downward movement of the foot at the ankle joint.

A tissue fold or ridge, often in reference to anatomical structures.

A healthcare professional specializing in foot care.

The area behind the knee joint.

Referring to the back side of the body.

A key ligament in the knee, preventing backward movement of the shin bone relative to the thigh bone.

The ability to maintain balance and align body segments within the support base.

An acronym for Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation, a standard approach to injury treatment.

The inward rolling of the foot, often linked to flat feet and posturerelated issues.

The sensory system informing the brain about body position and movement for coordinated action. 

 Essential amino acid chains for body tissue development and repair, obtained from sources like meat and dairy.

An electrotherapy modality using electromagnetic fields for healing.


The ‘quadriceps angle’ measures patellofemoral joint mechanics. It is the angle formed at the intersection of two lines: one from the front hip bone to the kneecap’s midpoint, and the other from the kneecap’s midpoint to the patella tendon insertion on the shin. A Q Angle over 15 degrees may increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFP).


The separation or gap of the left and right abdominal muscles.

The process of lessening unhealthy substances in the body.

An exercise machine offering precise resistance training for alignment, core strength, and flexibility development.

Treatment to enhance recovery and restore normal function after surgery.

Activities or therapies aimed at relaxing the body’s muscles, joints, and organs.

A device designed to improve balance, proprioception, and posture.

A general term for disorders causing pain around the kneecap, common in athletes.

Describing a condition that repeatedly occurs, like a headache.

The process of being directed to another agency or specialist for further treatment or consultation.

The process of recovering and restoring a muscle, injury, body part, or physical health through a progression of exercises.

The palpable pulsation of the radial artery at the wrist, used to assess heart rate, rhythm, and upper extremity blood flow.

Pain that spreads from its origin to other body parts, often due to
nerve compression or irritation.

The extent of movement a joint or body part can achieve, measured in degrees from a starting to an end position.

An involuntary, rapid response to a stimulus, mediated by the nervous system without conscious control.

The force or load applied to a muscle or joint during physiotherapy exercises to improve strength, endurance, or range of motion.

The perception of sound in the absence of external auditory stimulus, treated in physiotherapy for underlying causes like muscle
tension or joint dysfunction.

Characteristics or behaviors that increase the likelihood of developing a particular condition or injury.

The rotational movement of a joint or body segment during physiotherapy assessment or treatment.

A group of four muscles and tendons stabilizing the shoulder joint, often a focus in physiotherapy for injuries.

An X-ray image.

A professional who prepares and produces X-ray films.

The production of X-ray films.

A doctor specializing in radiology and diagnostic imaging like X-ray, MRI, and CT scans.

The degree to which body tissues allow the passage of X-ray beams.

Pain felt in one body part but originating from dysfunction in another part.

A term for overuse soft tissue injuries like carpal tunnel syndrome, often due to repeated activities.

The surgical excision of a body structure.

A systemic disorder causing inflammation and degeneration in connective tissue, often affecting joints.

A doctor specializing in rheumatic disorders affecting joints and connective tissue.

An acronym for Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation, a common injury treatment approach.

Muscles primarily stabilizing the shoulder joint, including Supraspinatus, Subscapularis, Infraspinatus, and Teres Minor.

A complete tear of soft tissue.


A condition causing dull, aching pain in the tibia, the large bone in the front of the lower leg.

The partial displacement of the upper arm bone (humerus) from the shoulder socket, often snapping back into place.

Tenderness and swelling in the shoulder caused by the rotator cuff tendon rubbing against the shoulder blade (acromion).

A range of treatments involving gentle to firm massage-like techniques to address motion restrictions and circulation issues
caused by inactivity or tension.

Therapy to treat pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy.

Spiked PVC balls used in massage, relaxation exercises, hand therapy, and reflexology to improve circulation.

Large, inflatable balls used for various exercises.

Pain in the stiff joint connecting the two halves of the pelvis.

Pain that radiates down the back of the leg from the lower back, often accompanied by numbness or weakness.

The process of seeking physiotherapy treatment without a referral from another agency or medical professional.

Refers to the muscles, ligaments, and tendons surrounding joints and bones.

The coordinated movement pattern between the scapula and humerus during shoulder movement, crucial for proper shoulder

A protective covering around tendons, nerves, or other structures, providing support and preventing injury.

The body’s outermost layer, providing a protective barrier and sensory input, assessed in physiotherapy for integrity and function.

A sudden movement or sensation during joint movement, often related to tendon or ligament movement over bones.

Discomfort or pain typically associated with muscle or tissue damage, inflammation, or overuse.

An injury where a ligament is stretched or torn, often due to a twisting movement, causing pain and limited joint motion.

Reduced range of motion and resistance to movement, often addressed in physiotherapy with stretching and strengthening exercises.

An injury to a muscle or tendon caused by overstretching or overuse.

Increasing muscle force-generating capacity through targeted exercises and activities.

The physical, emotional, and psychological distress experienced due to injury, illness, or disability.

The joint formed between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis, a potential source of lower back pain.

The bone at the spine’s base, formed by five fused vertebrae.

The shoulder blade.

Pain and altered sensation along the sciatic nerve path, often due to a lower back issue.

The system responsible for processing body position information and executing movement.

Painful conditions of the shin, often caused by stress fractures, medial tibial stress syndrome, tendinopathy, or compartment syndrome. Side Flexion: Bending to the side.

 Bending to the side.

Loosely organized bone forming around a fracture site.

Refers to skin, muscle, tendon, and ligament tissue in a musculoskeletal context.

A professional who performs ultrasound examinations.

A chronic disorder characterized by vertebral inflammation, causing stiffness and increased kyphosis.

Degeneration of the spine.

Forward slippage of one vertebra relative to an adjacent one, often due to a fracture or defect.

A tear or partial tear of ligament tissue surrounding a joint.

The joint between the sternum and clavicle.

A tear or partial tear of muscle tissue.

A subtle break in bone tissue due to overuse.

A brain-related problem caused by a blood vessel blockage or bleed, leading to brain tissue damage.

A partial dislocation of a joint.

Turning the palm of the hand upwards.

A joint connected by an interosseous membrane or ligament.

A fluid secreted by the synovial membrane, found in joint spaces, tendon sheaths, and bursa.

A freely movable joint lined by an articular capsule and a synovial membrane.

Inflammation of a synovial membrane, causing joint pain and swelling.


Elastic bands made of latex, used in physical therapy and strength training. They come in various colors to indicate different levels of resistance.

A small, square trampoline designed for exercise and fitness activities.

A technique in massage therapy or flexibility stretching targeting hyper-irritated spots in muscles that cause referred pain and stiffness to other body parts.

Strong, fibrous tissues connecting muscles to bones, like those along the calf muscles.

A partial or complete rupture of a muscle, tendon, or ligament, causing pain and limited movement, treated in physiotherapy with rest, ice, compression, elevation, exercises, and manual therapy.

Pain felt upon palpation, indicating inflammation or injury, used in physiotherapy to diagnose and guide treatment.

The state of being stretched or strained, leading to discomfort, addressed in physiotherapy with manual therapy, stretching, and strengthening exercises.

A sensation of prickling or ‘pins and needles,’ often indicative of nerve irritation or compression, treated with nerve gliding exercises and manual therapy.

The application of techniques and interventions to improve physical function, reduce pain, and promote health, including exercises, manual therapy, and modalities like heat or cold therapy.

Dysfunction in tendon tissue.

Collagen-based connective tissue linking muscles to bones. Tendonitis: Inflammation of a tendon.

Inflammation of a tendon.

A painful disorder of the outer elbow, involving inflammatory and degenerative changes at the extensor tendon attachment.

Inflammation of the sheath around a tendon.

A device providing pain relief through electrical stimulation of nerve endings.

A common term for a strain in the quadriceps muscles. Tibia: The shin bone.

The bony prominence on the upper part of the shin bone, the attachment area for the patella tendon and a common site for Osgood Schlatter’s disease.

The medical term for the windpipe.

Tissue damage and injury caused by force.

A unique hinge design patented by Mueller Sports Medicine Inc, used in specific knee braces to replicate the knee joint’s normal motion.


The involuntary loss of bladder control, leading to urine leakage.

 A localized area of tissue breakdown, often on the skin or mucous membrane, that does not heal properly. In physiotherapy, ulcers are treated with wound care techniques to promote healing and prevent infection.

The use of ultrasound technology to visualize internal body tissues.

The application of mechanical sound energy at frequencies above 20,000Hz for treating soft tissue injuries.


A condition involving recurrent or persistent involuntary contraction of vaginal muscles, making penetration difficult or impossible.

Persistent pain or discomfort in the skin around the vagina, often unexplained and characterized by sensations of burning or soreness.

The 24 individual bones that form the spine, providing structural support and protection for the spinal cord.

The process of air movement in and out of the lungs, often a focus in physiotherapy for improving lung function and respiratory muscle strength in conditions like COPD or cystic fibrosis.

An anatomical term describing a body part angled away from the midline of the body, such as a ‘knock-kneed’ knee position.

An anatomical term for a body part angled towards the midline of the body, such as a ‘bow-legged’ knee position.

The physiological narrowing of small blood vessels.

One of the 33 bones forming the spine, each consisting of a weight-bearing body and spinous processes for muscle attachment.

The series of separate bony segments constituting the spine.


A specialized therapy addressing issues related to obstetrics and gynecology, focusing on conditions and health concerns unique
to women.

A piece of equipment used in Pilates, designed for performing resistance exercises from various positions.

A term used to describe activities where force or weight is applied onto a muscle, joint, or part of the body, such as walking.

A decrease in muscle strength or power, impacting the ability to perform activities or movements. In physiotherapy, weakness is addressed through exercises and rehabilitation programs to enhance muscle function.

The degree of weight a patient can safely place on a particular body part or limb, crucial in planning physiotherapy treatments and exercises, especially for those with musculoskeletal or neurological conditions.

Treatment and rehabilitation of the wrist joint, encompassing assessment and management of conditions like sprains, strains, fractures, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Physiotherapy may include exercises, manual therapy, and education on ergonomics and injury prevention, aimed at improving wrist function and alleviating pain.


A diagnostic imaging technique that produces radiograph films, showing various body structures based on their radiolucency, which is their ability to block or pass x-ray beams.

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